Sleep, socialise and thrive: The power of lifestyle in preventing depression

Living a healthy lifestyle can play a significant role in preventing depression, and a recent study have unveiled why this connection exists.

Researchers from the University of Cambridge and Fudan University teamed up to explore the relationship between our way of life and the risk of developing depression. Their findings emphasise that adopting a healthy lifestyle can make a substantial difference in reducing the chances of depression.

Depression affects many people worldwide, and its onset is influenced by a mix of biological and lifestyle factors. To delve deeper into this connection, the scientists delved into a vast database called the UK Biobank, which contains anonymous information about genetics, lifestyle, and health from thousands of participants.

Educating young people about the importance of these lifestyle choices in schools can be a vital step in preventing depression from an early age.

Their study, published in Nature Mental Health, identified seven key factors of a healthy lifestyle that are linked to a lower risk of depression:

Moderate alcohol consumption: Enjoying alcohol in moderation can reduce the risk of depression by 11 percent.

Healthy diet: A nutritious diet can lower the risk by 6 percent.

Regular physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise reduces the risk by 14 percent.

Healthy sleep: Getting 7 to 9 hours of quality sleep can make the most significant difference, reducing the risk by 22 percent.

Never smoking: Avoiding smoking lowers the risk by 20 percent.

Low-to-moderate sedentary behaviour: Reducing sitting time can cut the risk by 13 percent.

Frequent social connection: Maintaining strong social connections reduces the risk of depression by 18 percent, especially against recurrent depressive disorder.

By adhering to these healthy lifestyle factors, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of depression. The researchers divided participants into three groups based on their lifestyle choices: unfavourable, intermediate, and favourable. Those in the favourable lifestyle group were an impressive 57 percent less likely to develop depression compared to the unfavourable group.

Even more remarkable, this study highlighted that a healthy lifestyle outweighs genetic factors when it comes to preventing depression. Those with the lowest genetic risk for depression were only 25 percent less likely to develop it compared to those with the highest genetic risk. This underscores the immense importance of our everyday choices in shaping our mental health.

So, why does a healthy lifestyle have such a profound impact on depression risk? The researchers explored several factors:

  • Brain scans revealed that a healthy lifestyle was associated with larger brain volumes in crucial regions like the pallidum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.
  • Lifestyle choices were linked to markers in the blood that indicate immune system and metabolic health. For instance, stress can affect blood sugar regulation, which, in turn, affects immune function.
  • Poor physical activity and lack of sleep can impair the body’s ability to respond to stress, potentially increasing depression risk.
  • Loneliness and lack of social support can lead to increased markers of immune deficiency, affecting mental health.

The pathway from a healthy lifestyle to improved immune and metabolic functions significantly lowers the risk of depression. So, maintaining a healthy lifestyle isn’t just good for your physical health; it’s crucial for your mental well-being too.

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Can a healthy lifestyle keep depression at bay?

A healthy lifestyle that involves moderate alcohol consumption, a nutritious diet, regular physical activity, restorative sleep, and frequent social connection while avoiding smoking and too much sedentary behavior reduces the risk of depression, new research has found.

In research published today in Nature Mental Health, an international team of researchers, including from the University of Cambridge and Fudan University, looked at a combination of factors, including lifestyle factors, genetics, brain structure, and our immune and metabolic systems to identify the underlying mechanisms that might explain this link.

Study: The brain structure, immunometabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying the association between lifestyle and depression. Image Credit: lzf / Shutterstock

According to the World Health Organization, around one in 20 adults experiences depression, and the condition poses a significant burden on public health worldwide. The factors that influence the onset of depression are complicated and include a mixture of biological and lifestyle factors.

To better understand the relationship between these factors and depression, the researchers turned to the UK Biobank, a biomedical database and research resource containing anonymized genetic, lifestyle, and health information about its participants.

By examining data from almost 290,000 people – of whom 13,000 had depression – followed over a nine-year period, the team identified seven healthy lifestyle factors linked with a lower risk of depression. These were:

  • moderate alcohol consumption
  • healthy diet
  • regular physical activity
  • healthy sleep
  • never smoking
  • low-to-moderate sedentary behavior
  • frequent social connection

Of all these factors, having a good night’s sleep – between seven and nine hours a night – made the most significant difference, reducing the risk of depression, including single depressive episodes and treatment-resistant depression, by 22%.

Frequent social connection, which generally reduced the risk of depression by 18%, was the most protective against recurrent depressive disorder.

Moderate alcohol consumption decreased the risk of depression by 11%, healthy diet by 6%, regular physical activity by 14%, never smoking by 20%, and low-to-moderate sedentary behavior by 13%.

Based on the number of healthy lifestyle factors an individual adhered to, they were assigned to one of three groups: unfavorable, intermediate, and favorable lifestyle. Individuals in the intermediate group were around 41% less likely to develop depression than those in the unfavorable lifestyle, while those in the favorable lifestyle group were 57% less likely.

The team then examined the participants’ DNA, assigning each a genetic risk score. This score was based on the number of genetic variants an individual carried that have a known link to the risk of depression. Those with the lowest genetic risk score were 25% less likely to develop depression when compared to those with the highest score – a much smaller impact than lifestyle.

In people at high, medium, and low genetic risk for depression, the team further found that a healthy lifestyle can cut the risk of depression. This research underlines the importance of living a healthy lifestyle for preventing depression, regardless of a person’s genetic risk.

Professor Barbara Sahakian, from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, said: “Although our DNA – the genetic hand we’ve been dealt – can increase our risk of depression, we’ve shown that a healthy lifestyle is potentially more important.

“Some of these lifestyle factors are things we have a degree control over, so trying to find ways to improve them – making sure we have a good night’s sleep and getting out to see friends, for example – could make a real difference to people’s lives.”

To understand why a healthy lifestyle might reduce the risk of depression, the team studied a number of other factors.

First off, they examined MRI brain scans from just under 33,000 participants and found a number of regions of the brain where a larger volume – more neurons and connections – was linked to a healthy lifestyle. These included the pallidum, thalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus.

Next, the team looked for markers in the blood that indicated problems with the immune system or metabolism (how we process food and produce energy). Among those markers found to be linked to lifestyle were the C-reactive protein, a molecule produced in the body in response to stress, and triglycerides, one of the primary forms of fat that the body uses to store energy for later.

A number of previous studies support these links. For example, exposure to stress in life can affect how well we are able to regulate blood sugar, which may lead to a deterioration of immune function and accelerate age-related damage to cells and molecules in the body. Poor physical activity and lack of sleep can damage the body’s ability to respond to stress. Loneliness and lack of social support have been found to increase the risk of infection and increase markers of immune deficiency.

The team found that the pathway from lifestyle to immune and metabolic functions was the most significant. In other words, a poorer lifestyle impacts on our immune system and metabolism, which in turn increases our risk of depression.

Dr Christelle Langley, also from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Cambridge, said: “We’re used to thinking of a healthy lifestyle as being important to our physical health, but it’s just as important for our mental health. It’s good for our brain health and cognition, but also indirectly by promoting a healthier immune system and better metabolism.”

Professor Jianfeng Feng, from Fudan University and Warwick University, added: “We know that depression can start as early as in adolescence or young adulthood, so educating young people on the importance of a healthy lifestyle and its impact on mental health should begin in schools.”

This study was supported by grants from organizations, including the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the Ministry of Science, China.

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